2023 Author: Eric Donovan | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-21 15:44
The turbocharger is a sensitive component due to extremely high loads. Chip tuning and showing off can additionally affect the turbine up to its death.
By Felix Rehwald
The first motorway drive after the inspection ends abruptly: When you accelerate, you can hear a “pop” in the engine compartment - and the turbodiesel has no more power. He bucked when accelerating, the engine rumbled. Diagnosis of the breakdown service: Loosened hose connection between the turbocharger and intercooler - a mechanic probably put the parts together sloppily.
Detached hose is a common cause
"A loosened hose - for example for charge air cooling - leads to a rapid drop in pressure," says Magnus Geisler from the ADAC technology center in Landsberg. As a result, the engine no longer receives enough air and cannot perform well. Turbocharger hoses often come loose, which, according to Geisler, is often caused by assembly errors. This is annoying, but in itself it does not pose a major threat to the engine.
Damage to the turbocharger itself is more critical. According to Geisler, a bearing, for example, can be damaged so that the charger no longer rotates fast enough. Leakages in the lubrication are also possible, which increases oil consumption. In the worst case scenario, a turbodiesel could suck in engine oil and “run through”, says Geisler: the unit revs up “until it breaks down”.
The turbocharger has a simple structure
Such damage to the loader also occurs relatively often. "The charger is one of the sensitive components in turbo engines," says Geisler. It is simple in structure, but has to endure “immense loads”. According to Bert Korporal from TÜV Nord in Hanover, a turbocharger is basically a turbine that compresses fresh air for the engine. "It pushes more oxygen into the combustion chambers, which increases the engine's performance."
Because the turbine is driven by the hot exhaust gas flow, there are large temperature differences in the charger housing, according to Geisler: “In the exhaust area, the charger is glowing red with temperatures of around 600 degrees. On the other hand, the pressure side is only around 100 degrees. " Before the air reaches the combustion chambers, it is cooled down by the intercooler.
Loads lead to wear
These loads lead to wear. According to the manufacturer BorgWarner Turbo Systems in Kirchheimbolanden (Rhineland-Palatinate), turbochargers are built in such a way that they usually achieve the service life of the engine. However, the engine manufacturer's service regulations must be complied with and the loader maintained regularly.
According to Bert Korporal, one avoidable cause is “brutal chip tuning”, which leads to overloading of individual charger components. Even showing off can affect the loader, adds Geisler. Briefly accelerating before switching off the engine drives up the temperatures in the charger unnecessarily.
Stop quickly if there is a problem
Most of the time the breakdowns hit the driver unexpectedly: "There is no sign of any damage to the turbocharger," says Geisler. But the driver immediately notices that something is wrong: "A turbodiesel, for example, only achieves 30 percent of its output without the charger." Geisler advises not to continue driving if there are problems. Because if something really breaks, it becomes expensive: Depending on the type, Geisler estimates around 1500 euros for a complete replacement. (dpa)